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嘉吉:调整母猪关键阶段的营养-产前1周、分娩、产后1周

来源:成都市蓄康生物科技有限公司  点击数:6122

(祝贺成都市蓄康生物科技有限公司专注围产期母猪研究4周年)

成都蓄康生物整理


Marc Decoux,全球养猪技术领导者,嘉吉

陈榮达    翻译


提高仔猪存活率可以增加每头母猪的生产力。新的营养研究证实,在重要妊娠阶段改善母猪营养将有助于提高仔猪出生重和活力。

欧洲的仔猪存活率平均水平是83%,范围从70%90%之间。仔猪存活率低主要受产死胎多和断奶前死亡影响。如果这两个量减少了,存活率就会增加,也就可以提高母猪繁殖性能和仔猪福利。

仔猪成活率受到窝产仔数多的挑战。母猪胎儿越多,分娩时间就要拉长,母猪更难分娩,分娩的小猪也不匀称。小仔更是要面临断奶前死亡的风险。


在妊娠期、围产期和哺乳期,给母猪提供充足的营养可以改善仔猪存活率。摄影:BartNijs

迎接过度阶段的挑战

改善妊娠期、围产期和哺乳期母猪营养,对仔猪存活率有显著影响。这是嘉吉公司最近猪研究项目的重点,项目形成过渡阶段的饲喂策略Livelle。母猪营养技术的突破有助于母猪哺育更多小猪,不管是出生时还是断奶时。

过渡阶段重要的三步:分娩前一周;分娩时;哺乳的第一周。

在过度阶段,母猪新陈代谢经受了剧大变化,以负能量平衡和高氧化压力为特征,如图1所示。窝产仔数越多,更需要特殊的营养。

1–母猪分娩前后处于高氧化压力下:仔猪成活率和母猪繁殖性能面临降低的风险。

1.过渡阶段的开始

分娩前一周的过渡阶段,母猪从合成代谢变为分解代谢,以支撑持胎儿更快生长,准备母猪分娩的能量消耗、初乳的分泌和分娩后几天的乳汁供应。

2.分娩

分娩整体时间不应超过5小时,但每头母猪分娩时间差别很大。这主要受母猪体况、能量代谢能力和矿物质尤其是钙的影响。

供应充足的水,确保最佳发酵纤维饲料的摄入量,平衡可消化氨基酸和阴阳离子,将有助于母猪分娩。

3.哺乳期

仔猪出生后母猪立刻开始泌乳,并且是以快于饲料摄入量的速度,泌乳一天比一天多。这影响了分娩母猪身体储备的流动性。精细的母猪饲养管理可显著提高仔猪存活率。

仔猪成活率提高3%

母猪从上产床到哺乳开始,实行过渡期喂养策略,可以提高母猪这一关键时期的表现。它包括添加剂Provilyt,其可刺激肝功能、提高母猪分娩后几天的泌乳量。嘉吉的研究表明,该添加剂能提高仔猪成活率3%,并减少哺乳期间母猪体重损失。

还有另一种添加剂Proviox和必需微量元素。这些产品支撑母猪新陈代谢和胎儿发育,并提供抗氧化防御。

发酵纤维、平衡电解质和可消化氨基酸的均衡配方,带给母猪舒适的肠道环境,矿物质利用增加,提前启动泌乳。

嘉吉公司进行了大量的试验,证明过渡阶段喂养方案带来的明显好处。试验结果表明,仔猪出生体重增加了2.7%,仔猪存活率提高了2.1%,如图2所示。这些改进相当于每头母猪每年增加0.75头仔猪或50公斤猪肉。改进的幅度因母猪的初始性能水平而有所不同。

2–补充母猪饲料某某对仔猪初生重和存活率的影响。

日粮的改善

改善母猪从断奶至发情的日粮水平有益于提高仔猪成活率。母猪恢复体质储备准备发情,经历4-6天。

良好的母猪日粮可以提高卵母细胞的质量,是母猪窝产仔均匀性的开始。

为了帮助实现这一目标,我们已经开发并测试了Livelle 专用料,补充富含糖原成分的饲料可刺激生殖激素分泌,提供必需微量元素,这些有利于胚胎早期发育。

试验表明使用这种补充专用料增加了仔猪出生重11.5%,如图3所示。在同一试验中,添加这种补充专用料的母猪与对照组相比,初生重小于1公斤的仔猪减少了40%

3 -过渡阶段喂养策略对出生重和均匀性的积极影响。

结论

在过去的十年里,许多猪场窝均产仔数增加了30%以上。受存活率的影响,断奶仔猪数与产仔数并不同步。遗传选育、管理和卫生都可以提高仔猪成活率。断奶至发情、怀孕到哺乳,使用一种特定的营养策略,有助于提高母猪生产力达到新水平。


原著:

Sows
Partner May 31, 2017 last update:Jul 3, 2017

Adjusting sow nutrition in key stages of transition

CargillCompany profile

Improved piglet livability adds value to the swine unit. New research and the development of an advanced nutritional programme have confirmed that improved sow nutrition at key stages in the breeding cycle will help improve birth weights and piglet vitality.
The average piglet livability in Europe is 83%, ranging from 70% to 90%. It is influenced by the number of stillbirths and pre-weaning mortality within a litter. If the levels of these 2 can be reduced within a litter, then livability increases which can lead to enhanced sow performance and piglet welfare.
Larger litter sizes challenge piglet livability. More piglets can result in longer and more difficult farrowing for the sow and less litter uniformity. Small piglets in particular are more at risk of pre-weaning mortality.
Piglet livability can be improved by providing adequate nutrition around parturition, in the transition phase from gestation to lactation. Photo: Bart Nijs
Meeting the transition challenges
Helping the sow, by improving her nutrition around parturition, in the transition phase from gestation to lactation, can have a significant impact on piglet livability. This has been the focus of Cargill’s recent pig research programme and has led to the development of Livelle Transition feeding strategy. This breakthrough in sow nutrition can help the sow in supporting larger litters, from birth to weaning.
There are 3 important steps in the transition phase:
the week before gestation,
farrowing and
the first week of lactation.
Sow metabolism undergoes major changes during the transition phase, marked by a negative energy balance and high oxidative stress, as shown in Figure 1. The changes are greater in larger litters and require special nutritional attention.
Figure 1 – High oxidative stress in sows around parturition: a risk for piglet livability and sow performance.
1. Start of the transition phase
The transition phase starts the week before farrowing. Sow metabolism switches from an anabolic to catabolic state, supporting a higher growth of the foetuses, preparing the sow for farrowing, colostrum production and early lactation.
2. Parturition
Farrowing should not last more than 5 hours, but it can vary greatly from one sow to another. It will be affected by the sow’s body condition and her ability to mobilise increased energy and minerals, particularly calcium.
Adequate water supply and ensuring feed intake with a diet that optimises fermentable fibre, digestible amino-acids and cation-anion balance, will help the farrowing process.
3. Lactation
Milk production starts immediately after birth and increases day by day, at a faster pace than sow feed intake. This influences the mobility of maternal body reserves. Managing and feeding the sow with precision during this period can result in a significant improvement of piglet livability.
Adding 3% to piglet livability
Adding the aforementioned transition feeding strategy to sow diets from her entering the farrowing house until the start of lactation can boost performance in this critical period. It includes the additive Provilyt that stimulates liver function and improves sow energy at birth and in early lactation. Cargill research shows that this additive can improve piglet livability by up to 3% and reduce sow body weight loss during lactation.
The feeding strategy also includes another additive, Proviox, and essential micronutrients. These products support sow metabolism and foetus development and provide antioxidant defences.
Intestinal sow comfort, mineral mobilisation and the onset of early lactation is enhanced too, through a balanced formulation on fermentable fibre, electrolyte balance and digestible amino-acids.
Extensive trial work by Cargill has demonstrated the significant benefits of the transition feeding programme. Trial results show improvements in piglet birth weight of 2.7% and in piglet vitality of 2.1%, as shown in Figure 2. These improvements are equivalent to an extra 0.75 piglets or 50 kg pork meat per sow per year. The magnitude of improvement will differ based on the initial performance level of the sows.
Figure 2 – Complementary sow feed**: Effect on piglet birth weight and livability.
Dietary improvement
Dietary improvements from weaning to oestrus can also benefit piglet livability. This is a four to six day period when the sow is recovering from her lactation and preparing for oestrus.
A better diet can improve the quality of oocytes production; the starting point for a uniform quality litter.
To help achieve this, Cargill has developed and tested Livelle Profert, a complementary feed rich in glycogenic components that stimulates reproductive hormones and supplies micronutrient essential to early embryo development.
Trials conducted by the company using this complementary feed show increases up to 11.5% in piglet birth weight, as shown in Figure 3. In the same experiment, sows supplemented with this complementary feed had 40% fewer piglets with a birth weight less than 1 kg when compared to the control group.
Figure 3 – Positive effect of a transition feeding strategy* on birth weight and uniformity.
Conclusion
In the past decade, average litter size at birth on many units has increased by more than 30%. The subsequent livability challenge has caused the number of weaned piglets to not keep pace with this. Genetic breed selection, management and hygiene all contribute piglet livability. Using a specific nutritional strategy during the weaning to oestrus interval and during transition from gestation to lactation, helps to raise sow productivity to the next level.
Author: Marc Decoux, global swine technology leader, Cargill
Related tags:
Sow Piglet Lactation Feeding Weaning Gestation




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